The priority is to settle disputes, preferably through an amicable solution, and it is expected that the procedure will be conducted in an efficient and timely manner, so that “when a case is tried, it should generally not last more than one year for a panel decision and no more than 16 months if the case is challenged… If the complainant feels that the matter is urgent, it should take even less time to consider the case. [83] WTO member states are required to accept the process as exclusive and mandatory. [84] The World Trade Organization (WTO) Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) came into force on 22 February 2017, two-thirds of the 164 WTO members have ratified it. The TFA – the first multilateral pact concluded by WTO members since its inception on 1 January 1995 – is an important step for the global trading system. The WTO, WTO members and other intergovernmental organizations, including the World Bank, the World Customs Organization and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), provide technical assistance to trade facilitation. In July 2014, the WTO announced the creation of a trade facilitation mechanism that helps developing countries and LDCs implement the Trade Facilitation Agreement. The facility came into force on 27 November 2014 with the adoption of the Trade Facilitation Protocol. Section II of the agreement contains innovative special and differentiated treatment provisions that link implementation by developing countries and LDCs to the acquisition of the ability to implement the agreement for the first time in WTO history (see box). Although tariffs and other trade barriers have been significantly reduced through the GATT and the WTO, the promise that free trade would accelerate economic growth, reduce poverty and increase people`s incomes has been challenged by many critics. [122] Some prominent skeptics cite the example of El Salvador. In the early 1990s, they eliminated all quantitative import barriers and also reduced tariffs.

However, the country`s economic growth has remained weak. On the other hand, Vietnam, which did not begin to reform its economy until the late 1980s, was very successful in deciding to follow the Chinese economic model and liberalize itself slowly, along with the implementation of safeguards for domestic trade. Vietnam has been largely successful in accelerating economic growth and reducing poverty without immediately removing significant trade barriers. [123] [122] At the end of bilateral discussions, the working group sends to the General Council or The Ministerial Conference a set of memberships summarizing all working group meetings, the accession protocol (draft accession treaty) and lists (“schedules”) of each member`s commitments. Once the General Council or Ministerial Conference has approved the terms of membership, the Parliament of the candidate country will have to ratify the accession protocol before becoming a member. [99] Some countries may have gone through a longer and harder accession process due to difficulties in negotiations with other WTO members, such as Vietnam, whose negotiations lasted more than 11 years before officially becoming a member in January 2007. [100] It is positive that seven LDCs have already communicated their indicative deadlines, although the deadline expires in two years (February 22, 2021), sending a clear signal to donors about their commitment to implement the agreement.

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